Price agreements are illegal in Australia under the Competition and Consumer Act 2010, with prohibitions significantly similar to those of the U.S. and Canadian prohibitions. The law is managed and enforced by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. Section 48 of the Competition and Consumer Affairs Act 2010 (Cth) expressly states that a company cannot participate in the preservation of resale prices. A better understanding of the legal provision can be found in Section 96 (3) of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth), which broadly defines what a resale price setting can be. Since 1997, U.S. courts have divided price fixing into two categories: vertical and horizontal pricing.  Vertical pricing includes a manufacturer`s attempt to control the price of its product in the retail sector.  At State Oil Co. v.
Khan, the U.S. Supreme Court held that vertical price agreements are no longer considered in themselves a violation of the Sherman Act, but that horizontal pricing is still considered an offence under the Sherman Act. Also in 2008, the united States v LG Display Co., United States v. Chunghwa Picture Tubes and United States v. Sharp Corporation. , who were heard in the Northern District of California, agreed to pay a total of $585 million to balance their lawsuits in order to set the prices of liquid crystal panels. It was the second largest amount awarded in history after the Sherman Act.  International price agreements by private companies can be sued under antitrust law in many countries.
Examples of international cartels prosecuted are those that controlled the prices and production of lysine, citric acid, graphite electrodes and mass vitamins.  In the neoclassical economy, price-fixing is ineffective. The anti-competitive agreement between producers to set prices above market prices transfers some of the consumer surplus to these producers and also results in net weight loss. If the bid or price shown is much higher than expected, the reason may be collusive to set the price or simply overpriced, but it is in itself legal. International airfares have set their prices in accordance with IATA, a practice for which there is a specific exception for cartels and abuse of dominant position.  [best source required] In March 2018, the European Commission fined eight companies, most of them Japanese, 254 million euros for exploiting an illegal price agreement on capacitors.  The two main players were Nippon Chemi-Con, fined 98 million euros, and Hitachi Chemical, fined 18 million euros.  Consider the following example of a futures contract.
Suppose an agricultural producer has two million woods of corn for sale in six months and is concerned about a possible drop in maize prices. It therefore enters into an advance contract with its financial institution for the sale of two million woods of maize at a price of USD 4.30 per bushel in six months, with liquidation to be done in cash. In 2008 in the United States, LG Display Co., Chunghwa Tubes and Sharp Corp., agreed to plead guilty and pay $585 million in fines for conspiracy to fix the prices of lcd boards. Criminal prosecutions must be conducted by the United States.