EU and UK negotiators reached an agreement on the draft Withdrawal Agreement that allows the European Council (Article 50) to adopt, on 23 March 2018, guidelines for the framework for the future relationship between the EU and the UK. The receipt of the agreement in the House of Commons ranged from fresh to hostile and the vote was delayed by more than a month. Prime Minister May won a no-confidence motion against her own party, but the EU refused to accept further changes. The Withdrawal Agreement, which covers 599 pages, covers the following key areas: After an unprecedented vote on 4 December 2018, MPs decided that the UK government was not respecting Parliament because it refused to give Parliament the full legal advice they had received on the impact of its proposed withdrawal conditions.  The central point of the opinion concerned the legal effect of the Backstop Agreement on Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the rest of the United Kingdom with regard to the customs border between the European Union and the United Kingdom and its impact on the Good Friday Agreement that led to the end of the unrest in Northern Ireland, and in particular on the security of the United Kingdom, to be able to leave the EU in practice, in accordance with the draft proposals. The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the “Irish backstop”, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the United Kingdom`s withdrawal from the European Union. The Protocol contained a safety net provision to deal with circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements have yet to enter into force at the end of the transitional period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol which will be described as follows. The Withdrawal Agreement provides for a transitional period until 31 December 2020, during which the United Kingdom will remain in the internal market to ensure smooth trade until a long-term relationship is agreed. In the absence of an agreement on that date, the UK will leave the internal market on 1 January 2021 without a trade agreement.
The Withdrawal Agreement is closely linked to a non-binding political declaration on the future relationship between the EU and the UK. This triggered Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, which sets out the procedure for a member state`s exit from the Union and introduces a two-year countdown to withdrawal. The Declaration on the Future Relationship between the European Union and the United Kingdom, also known as the Political Declaration, is a non-binding declaration, negotiated and signed at the same time as the binding and more comprehensive Withdrawal Agreement in the context of the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union (EU), commonly known as Brexit, and the planned end of the transition period. The most important elements of the draft agreement are: The agreement covers issues such as money, civil rights, border settlement and dispute settlement. It also contains a transition period and an overview of the future relationship between the UK and the EU. It was published on 14 November 2018 and was the result of the Brexit negotiations. The agreement was approved by the heads of state and government of the remaining 27 EU countries and by the British government led by Prime Minister Theresa May, but it met with opposition from the British Parliament, whose approval was required for ratification. The consent of the European Parliament would also have been necessary.
On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons rejected the Withdrawal Agreement by 432 votes to 202.  On March 12, 2019, the House of Commons again rejected the agreement by 391 votes to 242, and rejected a third time on March 29, 2019 by 344 votes to 286. On 22 October 2019, the revised withdrawal agreement negotiated by the Boris Johnson government opened the first stage in Parliament, but Johnson suspended the legislative process when the accelerated authorisation programme did not receive the necessary support and announced his intention to proclaim a general election.  On 23 January 2020, Parliament ratified the agreement by adopting the Withdrawal Agreement. On 29 January 2020, the European Parliament approved the Withdrawal Agreement. . . .